Lessons | 2018 | December 21

This is the lesson from 21 December 2018. This mostly covers about the Vietnam War. It also covers about Kate Chopin's story in Reading Comprehension.


  • This lesson was originally made with LibreOffice Writer by John M. Harpster.
  • Formatted with Notepad++ for space removal.
  • This was made with Microsoft Word for publishing into PDF by John T. Harpster.


  • Lesson of Friday, December 21, 2018
  • Third Week, Day Fourteen


Parts of Speech

Nouns are things. Nouns can be classified as: Noun, Proper Noun, Pronoun.

Nouns are just name a thing like desk, door, floor. Proper Nouns name a specific person or thing. Examples of Proper Nouns: Tom, Jane, Lynn-They are proper nouns because they list a specific person.

  • Adjectives describe nouns.
  • Verbs are action words.
  • Adverbs describe verbs.

Prepositions link nouns to other words. Examples of prepositions are to, or, in, with.

Conjunctions are words that link words, phrases, and clauses. They are also used sometimes to link two sentences together to make one sentence. Examples of conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

Interjections are words that are not necessary to the meaning of a sentence but express the emotion of the writer. They can stand alone or be part of a sentence. Examples of interjections are: Ouch! Okay. Hey. Oh.


Sentences are built like this:


Subject Predicate
Noun Verb
Adjectives Adverbs

Example sentence: The smart woman rapidly answered the question and won the contest.

What is the subject?

Singular vs. Plural nouns

Singular nouns are nouning that name one thing such as:

  • ball, house, floor, wall, lamp, television, disk

Plural nouns are nouns that name multiple things such as:

  • balls, houses, floors, walls, lamps, televisions, disks

Singular vs. Plural verbs

Singular verbs go with singular nouns such as:

  • the ball flies; the house stands; the wall falls; the lamp darkens; the disk spins

Plural verbs go with plural nouns such as:

  • the balls fly; the houses stand; the walls fall; the lamps darken; the disks spin

Notice that plural nouns usually end in ‘s’ while plural verbs don’t, singular verbs usually end in’s’.

Examples of Singular Nouns

Car, Train, Table, Desk, Wall, Tornado, Person, Floor, Lamps Head

Notice that most singular nouns have do not have an ‘s’ at the end.

Examples of Singular Verbs

Runs, walks, talks, looks, throws, tosses, flies, waves, sings, turns.

Notice that most singular verbs have an ‘s’ at the end. Also notice that some singular verbs have extra letters other than the ‘s’ added, and may be spelled a little differently.

  • Example: flies.

Examples of Plural Nouns

Cars, Trains, Tables, Desks, Walls, Tornadoes, People, Floors, Lamps, Heads

Notice that most, but not all, plural nouns have an ‘s’ at the end. The noun, ‘people’ is an example of a noun that doesn’t have an ‘s’ at the end.

Examples of Plural Verbs

Run, walk, talk, look, throw, toss, fly, wave, sing, turn.

Notice that most plural verbs do not have and ‘s’ at the end.


Practice handwriting so you can get faster.



A fraction is one number over the other like this:


Numerator and Denominator



is the numerator

Larger than 1.


is the denominator

Notice that if the numerator is larger the fraction is greater than (>) 1.


is the numerator

= 1


is the denominator

If the numerator = the denominator the fraction = 1.


is the numerator

Smaller than 1.


is the denominator

Notice that if the numerator is smaller the fraction is greater than (<) 1.


is the numerator



is the denominator

If the denominator = 0 the fraction is undefined because division by 0 is not allowed in mathematics.

New Mathematical Symbols

  • ≤ means less than as in 2 < 4
  • ≥ means greater than as in 4 > 2
  • × sometimes used to indicate multiplication instead of x
  • / division
  • ÷ division
  • () grouping symbols
  • [] grouping symbols
  • {} indicating a set of numbers or things
  • π pi equals approximately 3.14159265… which is an unending     number and is the circumference of a circle of 1 unit
  • ∞ infinity
  • ≠ not equal to
  • ≤ less than or equal to
  • ≥ greater than or equal to
  • square root
  • )¯¯¯  long division sign

Multiplication Tables

Study the multiplication tables and addition tables on the dining room table.

Reading Comprehension

Read the following story guess the theme of the story.

The Story of An Hour

by Kate Chopin

Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death.

It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences; veiled hints that revealed in half concealing. Her husband's friend Richards was there, too, near her. It was he who had been in the newspaper office when intelligence of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently Mallard's name leading the list of "killed." He had only taken the time to assure himself of its truth by a second telegram, and had hastened to forestall any less careful, less tender friend in bearing the sad message.

She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself, she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her.

She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams.

There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky, reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air.

Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously. She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will--as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been. When she abandoned herself, a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under the breath: "free, free, free!" The vacant stare and the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body.

She did not stop to ask if it were or were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial. She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death; the face that had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome.

There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature. A kind intention or a cruel intention made the act seem no less a crime as she looked upon it in that brief moment of illumination.

"Free! Body and soul free!" she kept whispering.

Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhole, imploring for admission. "Louise, open the door! I beg; open the door--you will make yourself ill. What are you doing, Louise? For heaven's sake open the door."

"Go away. I am not making myself ill." No; she was drinking in a very elixir of life through the open window.

Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long.

She arose at length and opened the door to her sister's importunities. There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. She clasped her sister's waist, and together they descended the stairs. Richards stood waiting for them at the bottom.

Someone was opening the front door with a latchkey. It was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his grip-sack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of the accident, and did not even know there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine's piercing cry; at Richards' quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife.

When the doctors came, they said she had died of heart disease--of the joy that kills.


Answer the following questions about the above story.

  1. Mrs. Mallard loved being married.
  2. Mrs. Mallard was secretly elated when she found out her husband was dead.
  3. Mr. Mallard was in an airplane accident.
  4. Mr. Mallard was in a car accident.
  5. None of the above.

Social Studies

Geography and World History

Cause and Effect

Sometimes a passage will not present obvious information about a cause and an effect. The writer may imply or indirectly hint that something caused an effect. Consider the statement:

After I calculated the amount, I spend every month on gasoline, I realized that I made a bad choice when I purchased the wrong vehicle.

There are several things that are implied by this statement.  Although the statement does not mention how much gasoline the vehicle uses, it implies that the quantity is more than the speaker wishes to pay for. The statement does not mention the type of vehicle, but it was not a good choice based on the amount of gasoline the vehicle requires for a month’s driving.


The Vietnam War (Second Indochina War, Part II)

There are several competing views on the conflict. Some on the North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front side view the struggle against U.S. forces as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and later on the United States, especially in light of the failed 1954 Geneva Conference calls for elections. Other interpretations of the North Vietnamese side include viewing it as a civil war, especially in the early and later phases following the U.S. interlude between 1965 and 1970, as well as a war of liberation. In the perspective of some, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, the successor to the Việt Cộng, was motivated in part by significant social changes in the post-World War II Vietnam, and had initially seen it as a revolutionary war supported by Hanoi. The pro-government side in South Vietnam viewed it as a civil war, a defensive war against communism, or were motivated to fight to defend their homes and families. The U.S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam. This was part of the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism.

Courage (Fortitude)

Robot Man (Cyborg)

Space Quest (Star Quest)

U.S. Highway System